What is %% function in R programming language?

What is %% function in R programming language?

Hey guys, what’s up? I have found that, many of you want to get answer about what is %% function in r. So by this tutorial I am going to teach you about %% operator in r. Let’s start—

what is %% function in r

Actually, %% is call modulo/ modules operator. In mathematics, we can use only modulo. But in R programming language we write two modulo together. For double arguments, %% can be subject to catastrophic loss of accuracy if x is much larger than y, and a warning is given if this is detected. There is a function of it, called mod(arg1,arg2) function. 
Here,

  • arg1– is a numerical value or numerical vector.
  • arg2– is also a numerical value or numerical vector.

I am going to clarify it properly, so that it make more understandable for you.

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mod(x, y) = x mod y
                  = x %% y
                  = remainder of x divided by y
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mod(x, y) = x - y * floor(x/y)

Some mathematical examples of %% function in r

> 7 %% 2
[1] 1

> 11.8 %% 5
[1] 1.8


> 10 %% 10  
[1] 0

> 20 %% 10  
[1] 0

> 10 %% 20  
[1] 10

> 2 %% 8  
[1] 2


Time difference example of %% function in r

> # To access the help file for %% and %/%,
> # use acute accents around %%
> ?`%%`
> 
> 
> #=====> See txtProgressBar Post <=====#
> SEQ  <- seq(1,100000)
> TIME <- Sys.time()
> for(i in SEQ){
+   Sys.sleep(0.00002)
+ }
> Sys.time() - TIME
Time difference of 3.872829 secs
> 
> pb   <- txtProgressBar(1, 100000, style=3)
> TIME <- Sys.time()
> for(i in SEQ){
+   Sys.sleep(0.00002)
+   setTxtProgressBar(pb, i)
+ }
  |===================================================| 100%
> Sys.time() - TIME
Time difference of 8.296607 secs
> 
> pb   <- txtProgressBar(1, 100000, style=3)
> TIME <- Sys.time()
> for(i in SEQ){
+   Sys.sleep(0.00002)
+   if(i %% 1000 == 0){
+     setTxtProgressBar(pb, i)
+   }
+ }
  |===================================================| 100%
> Sys.time() - TIME
Time difference of 4.218381 secs

> 2 %% 8  
[1] 2

So guys, that’s all about what is %% function in r. Later we will discuss another topic of r programming language. Till then, take care. Happy Coding

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